The Slender bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium indicum) is a common shark inshore of the tropical western Indo-Pacific. Despite being known since 1789 and thus as long as its cousin Epaulette shark, the only other member of the family bamboo shark known at that time, little is known about this small (up to 26 in -65 cm- long) sluggish bottom-dwelling shark.
Named after its slender body and long slender tail, the Slender bamboo shark has got pattern of darker spots and stripes on its back. Like all bamboo shark it is oviparous, that means females lay eggs. Pups hatch at 5 in -13 cm-, and males mature at 15 to 16.5 in -39 to 42 cm- and females at 17 in -43 cm.
The Slender bamboo shark is considered Near threatened by the IUCN because it is likely to be threatened by overfishing (it is regularly caught for its meat in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand), destructive fishing practices and habitat modification, including the damage and destruction of coral reefs throughout much of its range.
Mass production of plastics, which began just six decades ago, has accelerated so rapidly that it has created 8.3 billion metric tons … 6.3 billion metric tons has become plastic waste. (Half of all plastic manufactured becomes trash in less than a year)… Of that, only nine percent has been recycled.
And this recycling can make matters even worse: In China fleece are made of disposable water bottles from Germany (as part of the recycling quota) and sold back to Germany, where they pollute the waste water and lastly the sea with micro fibers (microbeads) due to cleaning and still end up as waste, but already broken down in small particles (instead of after 450 years like the original water bottle).
Waste minimisation instead of recycling, I say!
Die Massenproduktion von Kunststoff, die erst vor 6 Jahrzehnten begann, hat sich so rasant beschleunigt, dass sie 8,3 Milliarden metrische Tonnen erschaffen hat… 6,3 Milliarden metrische Tonnen davon sind zu Müll geworden (Die Hälfte alles hergestellten Kunststoffs wird innerhalb von weniger als einem Jahr zu Abfall)…Davon sind nur 9 Prozent recycled worden.
Und dieses Recycling kann alles noch schlimmer machen: In China werden aus Einweg-Wasserflaschen aus Deutschland (als Teil der Recycling-Quote) Fleece hergestellt und wieder nach Deutschland zurück verkauft, wo sie das Abwasser und letztlich das Meer mit Mikro-Fasern (Mikroplastik) beim Waschen verschmutzen und doch wieder als Abfall enden, aber schon in kleine Teilchen zersetzt (anstatt nach 450 Jahren wie die originale Wasserflasche).
Müllvermeidung anstelle von Recycling, sage ich!
The Silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus), despite being easily recognized due to its eponymous white margins on all fins (even pectoral fins, unlike all other “whitetip” shark species), it often confused with its smaller brother Grey reef shark. Both are requiem sharks and can be found on or near coral reefs in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. They are known to form mixed-species aggregations and both perform (slightly different) ritual threat displays to chase away threats (like other sharks or divers) and protect their personal space. The mock attack of an up to 10 ft -3 m- long Silvertip shark (as described here) remind me of male gorillas. While it seems aggressive, I consider this as defensive behavior. Remarkable that they rather flee or chase away instead of attack, in which case they would, more often than not, prevail due to their size.
Like all other requiem sharks, Silvertip sharks are viviparous. Females bear every other year litters of around five young after a gestation period of about one year. They grow slowly and mature at around 6.6 ft -2 m- with 20 years.
Silvertip sharks are caught in direct shark fisheries, as bycatch and by illegal practices (IUU) mostly for their fins and meat, but also for cartilage, liver, teeth, jaws and skin. This resulted in areas like Scott Reef off northern Australia, where they are now extinct because of Indonesian fishers. Hence the IUCN considers them as “Vulnerable“. However, there are no species-specific management measures in place.
Despite their inquisitive and aggressive behavior (see above) and being able to take on large prey (due to their dentition, size and power), Silvertip sharks are not known to attack humans. The ISAF lists only 4 provoked, none fatal attacks under this species.
One of many shark species living solely off Australia is the Ornate Wobbegong (Orectolobus ornatus). This species of carpet sharks is only up to 3.8 ft – 1.17 m – long and had been confused with juvenile Banded Wobbegongs (Orectolobus halei) until 2006.
Ornate wobbegongs are ovoviviparous. Every 3 years around 9 living young are born with a size of 7.9 in -20 cm. The gestation period is only about 10 to 11 month long, but the follicles take two years to enlarge before ovulation.
Since they mature at about 31 in -80 cm- length, measures to protect juveniles of the bigger Banded wobbegong (a minimum catch size limit of 5.9 ft – 1.80 m -), implemented between 2008 and 2013, effectively protected Ornate Wobbegongs of all sizes and allowed their stocks to recover. There are management regulations in place for commercial wobbegong fisheries (where they are taken as bycatch and for their meat for fish and chips and their skin for leather), and a possession limit for recreational fishers of one shark in Queensland and zero sharks in New South Wales. That’s why the IUCN has been considered the Ornate wobbegong since 2015 as “Least Concern” (after “Near Threatened” in 2009).
There are sharks like last weeks Smoothtooth blacktip shark that are very rare. It is understandable that not much data is available on these species, and the IUCN has to decide if they thus are considered threatened or “only” data deficient.
A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. (Source)
Then there is this species of requiem sharks named Bignose shark (Carcharhinus altimus), well known and widespread all around the world on the continental shelf edge in tropical and warm seas, that is considered data deficient, too. How is that possible? The IUCN suspects that “the overall volume of catch reported to ICCAT does not represent the total removals of these sharks and the data are also very limited with respect to the size-, age- and sex- composition of the catch.”
The Bignose shark is, like all requiem sharks, viviparous. During the 10-month gestation period, 3 to 15 embryos are at first feed by yolk and later via a placental connection. They may be sired by two or more males. Born at 28 to 35 in -70 to 90 cm- long, young sharks stay at first in their nursery areas at depths of around 82 ft -25 m-, but in general the Bignose shark prefers deeper water.
Bignose shark are highly migratory: seasonally (traveling distances between 1,000 and 2,000 mi -1,600 and 3,200 km-), but diel vertically, too. By day swimming close to the sea floor at depths of 300 to 1,410 ft -90 to 430 m-, they move at night upwards or toward the coast.
Males reach maturity at 7.2 ft -2.2 m- and females at 7.5 ft -2.3 m-. This species possibly reaches 9.8 ft -3 m- in length. Despite their size, Bignose sharks are no danger to humans. They are taken worldwide as bycatch of gillnet, bottom trawl, and deep-set pelagic longline fisheries and used for their meat and fins or to produce liver oil, shagreen (shark skin leather), and fishmeal. Due to high fishing pressure, for instance in the northwestern Atlantic (where they are considered regionally as Near Threatened), in international waters and around the Maldives, its status is of concern and data collection and precautionary adaptive collaborative management should be a priority. Bignose sharks are considered regionally as Least Concern in Australian waters, and are protected in US waters.
What do the Smoothtooth blacktip shark (Carcharhinus leiodon) and the Australian blacktip shark have in common? Well, obviously they are both sharks with black tips on their fins. These two species of requiem sharks look similar in other aspects as well, and have both a small range: the first is to be found only off the Arabian Peninsula and the second off Northern Australia. And they are closely related, as shown by genetic tests. How is that possible?
Other close relatives linking the ranges of both species could be the key: the graceful shark inhabiting the whole Indo-Pacific, and the worldwide in tropical waters living blacktip shark.
The Smoothtooth blacktip shark is extremely rare. At first there was only one specimen that had been found in 1902 off Yemen, but in 2008 a few more have been discovered on fish markets in Kuwait. Since then they are known to be at least 3.9 ft – 1.2 m – long. Their eponymous teeth have narrow, smooth cusps, similar only to those from finetooth sharks and juvenile spinner sharks.
Before 2008 the Smoothtooth blacktip shark had been considered as vulnerable by the IUCN. That could change due to the additional finds. Or not, since its small habitat suffers heavily from high fishing pressure and habitat degradation.
The Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), also known as Bizant river shark or Queensland river shark,is a member of the family requiem sharks. Just like the Ganges shark, this river sharks lives not only in rivers but in the sea, too. It seems that rivers in northern Australia and New Guinea are nursery grounds since newborn and juvenile sharks have been found there. They stay there several years (only shift according to tides or salinity) but up until 2015 no mature specimen had been found. Now it is known that this species mates in rivers, too, but lives also in coastal marine waters.
Speartooth sharks are named after the shape of their teeth in the lover jaw: they seems topped with a spearhead. Females are viviparous (yolk sac develops into a placental connection) and give birth to up to 6 living young every two years. The pups are 20 to 23 in -50 to 59 cm- long and grow around 7.5 in -19 cm- per year. Mature sharks are up to 8.5 ft -2.6 m- long.
Despite their size, Speartooth sharks pose no threat to humans. They are extremely rare, but are caught incidentally by commercial, artisanal and recreational fishers as bycatch and suffer additionally from habitat degradation. Consequently, they are considered Endangered by the IUCN. Even as Critically Endangered on the 1999 Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (but since Commonwealth protection does not apply until a distance of three nautical miles from the coast, which is likely outside the range of this shark, it is of no use). Sadly, there are no regulations restricting the capture of this species in Papua New Guinea, and in Australia a management plan has yet to be enacted. In two Australian National Parks they are protected somewhat from habitat alteration, if not fishing.
The Grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) is a common species of requiem sharks living in the Indo-Pacific and the Red Sea. It is a homebody (but not territorial toward other Grey reef sharks) and stays mostly in shallow waters near the drop-off of its coral reef. It has the typical “reef shark” shape, with a broad, round snout and large eyes. Its body is grey above and white below with dusky to black tips on its fins, but will eventually darken in color due to tanning in the shallow water. It is social and forms groups with other Grey reef sharks.
Female Grey reef sharks are viviparous (embryos feed first from yolk and later via a placental connection) and give birth to one to six living young every other year. Those are 18 to 24 in -45 to 60 cm- long and reach maturity after around 7 years of age (11 years at the Great Barrier reef) when they are 4.3 to 4.9 ft -1.3 to 1.5 m- long (males) or 3.9 to 4.6 ft -1.2 to 1.4 m- long (females). They live up to 25 years.
Usually reaching 6.2 ft -1.9m- in length (although 8.5 ft -2.6m- long specimen have been found), the Grey reef shark is not the biggest shark at the reef. But it is famous for its thread display, which is meant to discourage even bigger enemies or competition from coming near to prevent unnecessary fights and thus possible injuries.
It works for instance with hammerheads and moray eels and should work with divers, too. But since such a form of interspecies communication is difficult for us humans (we know what a growling and snarling dog means, but we don’t speak Shark), and the Grey reef shark is willing to walk the talk, if needed, there are several reports of shark attacks by Grey reef sharks (thankfully all non-fatal since they are capable of inflicting significant damage, for instance to submersibles). The IUCN considers the Grey reef shark as Near threatened due to low reproduktion rate, site fidelity and habitat degradation, but also high fishing pressure (for meat and fins). At the Great Barrier reef their population has declined by 97 percent in fishing and equally in non-fishing zones, compared to no-entry zones, indicating that poaching is a big problem.
The Leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) is a beautiful shark of the family of houndsharks. It lives in the northeastern pacific in several distinct populations off Oregon down to Mexico. They like the ground (sandy or muddy) near rocks or kelp forests in depths between 3 and 295 ft -1 and 90 m.
Female Leopard sharks are ovoviparous and give birth to 4 to 29 living young after a gestation period of 12 month. The 8 in -30 cm- long pups grow slowly and mature only after 10 years. Males are up to 78 in -2 m- and females up to 70 in -1.8 m- long. They live up to 30 years.
Leopard sharks form large groups, even together with different shark species. They search rather buried prey like crabs, worms and clams than feed from fish. Since their habitats are often endangered by human effluent and industrial waste, they tend to concentrate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), and other toxic chemicals in the liver.
Leopard sharks are caught as game fish and fished commercially for their meat. They are often shown in aquaria.
If you ever saw a video about factory farming of pigs, you will value this one:
Two women let the sow out (it is also a German phrase meaning “two women whoop it up”) – they keep pigs in Germany in free range (albeit different races bought in England). If the link is invalid (the video is limited to 1 year, sorry) – I will share some facts in my coming post about pork.
Wenn Du jemals ein Video über Massentierhaltung von Schweinen gesehen hast, wirst Du dies zu würdigen wissen:
Zwei Frauen lassen die Sau raus – sie halten Schweine in Deutschland in Freilandhaltung (wenn auch andere Rassen, die in England gekauft wurden). Falls der Link nicht mehr funktioniert (das Video ist auf 1 Jahr begrenzt, tut mir leid) – ich werde einige Fakten in meinen kommenden Post zu Schweinefleisch einbeziehen.