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Hai der Woche: Schwarzspitzen-Riffhai — 16. October 2017

Hai der Woche: Schwarzspitzen-Riffhai

Der Schwarzspitzen-Riffhai (Carcharhinus melanopterus – abgeleitet von melas = schwarz und pteron = Flügel oder Flosse (siehe Pterosaurier)) ist ein weiterer Requiemhai, der in Korallenriffen lebt. Er bewohnt küstennahe Gewässer des tropischen und subtropischen Indo-Pazifik von Südafrika bis Hawaii (hat sogar das östliche Mittelmeer durch den menschengemachten Suez-Kanal besiedelt) und bevorzugt seichtere Gewässer als seine Kollegen Grauer Riffhai und Weißspitzen-Riffhai. Ihre Kinderstuben (die Weibchen sind vivipar und bringen lebende Junge zu Welt, nachdem sie diese mit Dotter und über eine Plazenta-Verbindung ernährt haben) können so flach sein, dass die Jungen mit ihrer Rückenflosse aus dem Wasser ragend schwimmen müssen und aussehen “wie eine Flotte von Mini-Segelbooten” (Zitat von hier).

An expanse of clear water and white sand, and several sharks swimming with their black-tipped dorsal fins protruding above the water
Carcharhinus melanopterus by Leon Brocard from London, UK – PIMG_2915, CC BY 2.0, Link

Nicht nur Junge bevorzugen es, aus Schutzgründen in Gruppen zu bleiben, auch erwachsene Schwarzspitzen-Riffhaie bilden stabile Gruppen für soziale Zwecke und zur Jagd. Ihre Beute sind Fische, Krustentiere, Weichtiere und Tintenfische, aber auch Land- und Seeschlangen und sogar Ratten und Vögel. Sie haben große Augen mit einer reflektierenden tapetum lucidum wie eine Katze, was andeutet, dass sie nachts exzellent jagen können.

Wegen ihres extrem kleinen Reviers und ihrer hohen Standort-Treue sind Schwarzspitzen-Riffhaie anfällig für die Zerstörung ihres Lebensraumes und Fischereidruck (nur als Beifang bei kommerziellen Fischereien, aber gezielt von Kleinfischern für ihr Fleisch, Leber-Öl und Flossen, und auch von Sportfischern und für den Aquarienhandel). Ihre kleinen Würfe (nur 2 bis 5 Junge) und lange Tragzeit (bis zu 16 Monate) sind auch keine Hilfe. Sie werden als “potentiell gefährdet” von der IUCN angesehen. Normalerweise sind sie scheu und trotz ihrer Größe (typischerweise bis zu 1,6 m) keine Gefahr für den Menschen, aber manchmal beißen sie die Beine oder Füße von Watern, die in ihren Bereich eindringen, oder von Speer-Fischern für ihren Fang.

Quellen: hier, hier und hier

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Shark of the week: Blacktip reef shark —

Shark of the week: Blacktip reef shark

The Blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus – derived from melas = black and pteron = wing or fin (see Pterosaurs)) is another requiem shark living in coral reefs. It inhabits nearshore waters of the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific from South Africa to Hawaii (even colonized the eastern Mediterranean Sea by way of the man-made Suez Canal) and prefers more shallow waters than its colleagues grey reef shark and whitetip reef shark. Their nursery grounds (females are viviparous and give birth to living young after feeding them from yolk and via placental connection) can be so shallow that the pups have to swim with their dorsal fins above the water looking “like a flotilla of tiny sailboats” (quote from here).

An expanse of clear water and white sand, and several sharks swimming with their black-tipped dorsal fins protruding above the water
Carcharhinus melanopterus by Leon Brocard from London, UK – PIMG_2915, CC BY 2.0, Link

Not only pups prefer to stay in groups for protection, but also adult Blacktip reef sharks form stabile groups for social purposes and hunting. Their prey are fishes, crustaceans, molluscs and squids, but also terrestrial and sea snakes and even rats and birds. They have got large eyes with a reflective tapetum lucidum like a cat, indicating that they can excellent hunt at night.

Due to their extremely small home ranges and strong site fidelity, Blacktip reef sharks are susceptible to habitat degradation and fishing pressure (only as bycatch by commercial fisheries, but targeted by artisanal fishermen for their meat, liver oil and fins, and also by recreational fishermen and for aquarium trade). Their small litter sizes (only 2 to 5 pups) and long gestation periods (up to 16 month) are no help, either. They are considered “near threatened” by the IUCN. They are normally timid and despite their size (typically up to 5.2 ft -1.6 m-) no danger to humans, but sometimes bite the legs or feet of waders encroaching into their space or spear fishers for their catch.

Sources: here, here and here

Shark of the week: Slender bamboo shark — 9. October 2017

Shark of the week: Slender bamboo shark

The Slender bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium indicum) is a common shark inshore of the tropical western Indo-Pacific. Despite being known since 1789 and thus as long as its cousin Epaulette shark, the only other member of the family bamboo shark known at that time, little is known about this small (up to 26 in -65 cm- long) sluggish bottom-dwelling shark.

Chiloscyllium indicum malaysia 1.jpg
Chiloscyllium indicum by Tassapon KRAJANGDARA – http://www.fishbase.us/photos/thumbnailssummary.php?ID=5900#, CC BY 3.0, Link

Named after its slender body and long slender tail, the Slender bamboo shark has got pattern of darker spots and stripes on its back. Like all bamboo shark it is oviparous, that means females lay eggs. Pups hatch at 5 in -13 cm-, and males mature at 15 to 16.5 in -39 to 42 cm- and females at 17 in -43 cm.

The Slender bamboo shark is considered Near threatened by the IUCN because it is likely to be threatened by overfishing (it is regularly caught for its meat in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand), destructive fishing practices and habitat modification, including the damage and destruction of coral reefs throughout much of its range.

Sources: here and here

National Geographic: study about plastic waste| Studie über Plastik-Abfall — 7. October 2017

National Geographic: study about plastic waste| Studie über Plastik-Abfall

Mass production of plastics, which began just six decades ago, has accelerated so rapidly that it has created 8.3 billion metric tons … 6.3 billion metric tons has become plastic waste. (Half of all plastic manufactured becomes trash in less than a year)… Of that, only nine percent has been recycled.

via http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/07/plastic-produced-recycling-waste-ocean-trash-debris-environment/

And this recycling can make matters even worse: In China fleece are made of disposable water bottles from Germany (as part of the recycling quota) and sold back to Germany, where they pollute the waste water and lastly the sea with micro fibers (microbeads) due to cleaning and still end up as waste, but already broken down in small particles (instead of after 450 years like the original water bottle).
Waste minimisation instead of recycling, I say!


Die Massenproduktion von Kunststoff, die erst vor 6 Jahrzehnten begann, hat sich so rasant beschleunigt, dass sie 8,3 Milliarden metrische Tonnen erschaffen hat… 6,3 Milliarden metrische Tonnen davon sind zu Müll geworden (Die Hälfte alles hergestellten Kunststoffs wird innerhalb von weniger als einem Jahr zu Abfall)…Davon sind nur 9 Prozent recycled worden.

via http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/07/plastic-produced-recycling-waste-ocean-trash-debris-environment/

Und dieses Recycling kann alles noch schlimmer machen: In China werden aus Einweg-Wasserflaschen aus Deutschland (als Teil der Recycling-Quote) Fleece hergestellt und wieder nach Deutschland zurück verkauft, wo sie das Abwasser und letztlich das Meer mit Mikro-Fasern (Mikroplastik) beim Waschen verschmutzen und doch wieder als Abfall enden, aber schon in kleine Teilchen zersetzt (anstatt nach 450 Jahren wie die originale Wasserflasche).
Müllvermeidung anstelle von Recycling, sage ich!

Shark oft the week: Silvertip shark — 2. October 2017

Shark oft the week: Silvertip shark

The Silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus), despite being easily recognized due to its eponymous white margins on all fins (even pectoral fins, unlike all other “whitetip” shark species), it often confused with its smaller brother Grey reef shark. Both are requiem sharks and can be found on or near coral reefs in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. They are known to form mixed-species aggregations and both perform (slightly different) ritual threat displays to chase away threats (like other sharks or divers) and protect their personal space. The mock attack of an up to 10 ft -3 m- long Silvertip shark (as described here) remind me of male gorillas. While it seems aggressive, I consider this as defensive behavior. Remarkable that they rather flee or chase away instead of attack, in which case they would, more often than not, prevail due to their size.

0979 aquaimages.jpg
Silvertip shark, Image taken by Clark Anderson/Aquaimages – Originaly uploaded to the english wikipedia, Image:0979 aquaimages.jpg, CC BY-SA 2.5, Link

Like all other requiem sharks, Silvertip sharks are viviparous. Females bear every other year litters of around five young after a gestation period of about one year. They grow slowly and mature at around 6.6 ft -2 m- with 20 years.

Silvertip sharks are caught in direct shark fisheries, as bycatch and by illegal practices (IUU) mostly for their fins and meat, but also for cartilage, liver, teeth, jaws and skin. This resulted in areas like Scott Reef off northern Australia, where they are now extinct because of Indonesian fishers. Hence the IUCN considers them as “Vulnerable“. However, there are no species-specific management measures in place.

Despite their inquisitive and aggressive behavior (see above) and being able to take on large prey (due to their dentition, size and power), Silvertip sharks are not known to attack humans. The ISAF lists only 4 provoked, none fatal attacks under this species.

Sources: here and here

Shark of the week: Ornate wobby — 25. September 2017

Shark of the week: Ornate wobby

One of many shark species living solely off Australia is the Ornate Wobbegong (Orectolobus ornatus). This species of carpet sharks is only up to 3.8 ft – 1.17 m – long and had been confused with juvenile Banded Wobbegongs (Orectolobus halei) until 2006.

Orectolobus ornatus great barrier reef.jpg
Banded wobbegong (Orectolobus ornatus) at the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland by Andrew J. Green / Reef Life Survey – http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/1976, CC-BY 4.0, Link

Ornate wobbegongs are ovoviviparous. Every 3 years around 9 living young are born with a size of 7.9 in -20 cm. The gestation period is only about 10 to 11 month long, but the follicles take two years to enlarge before ovulation.

Since they mature at about 31 in -80 cm- length, measures to protect juveniles of the bigger Banded wobbegong (a minimum catch size limit of 5.9 ft – 1.80 m -), implemented between 2008 and 2013, effectively protected Ornate Wobbegongs of all sizes and allowed their stocks to recover. There are management regulations in place for commercial wobbegong fisheries (where they are taken as bycatch and for their meat for fish and chips and their skin for leather), and a possession limit for recreational fishers of one shark in Queensland and zero sharks in New South Wales. That’s why the IUCN has been considered the Ornate wobbegong since 2015 as “Least Concern” (after “Near Threatened” in 2009).

Sources:here and here

Shark of the week: Bignose shark — 18. September 2017

Shark of the week: Bignose shark

There are sharks like last weeks Smoothtooth blacktip shark that are very rare. It is understandable that not much data is available on these species, and the IUCN has to decide if they thus are considered threatened or “only” data deficient.

A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. (Source)

Then there is this species of requiem sharks named Bignose shark (Carcharhinus altimus), well known and widespread all around the world on the continental shelf edge in tropical and warm seas, that is considered data deficient, too. How is that possible?  The IUCN suspects that “the overall volume of catch reported to ICCAT does not represent the total removals of these sharks and the data are also very limited with respect to the size-, age- and sex- composition of the catch.”

The Bignose shark is, like all requiem sharks, viviparous. During the 10-month gestation period, 3 to 15 embryos are at first feed by yolk and later via a placental connection. They may be sired by two or more males. Born at 28 to 35 in -70 to 90 cm- long, young sharks stay at first in their nursery areas at depths of around 82 ft -25 m-, but in general the Bignose shark prefers deeper water.

Bignose shark.jpg
Carcharhinus altimus by NOAA – http://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05coralbanks/logs/oct17/media/bignoseshark_600.html, Public Domain, Link

Bignose shark are highly migratory: seasonally (traveling distances between 1,000 and 2,000 mi -1,600 and 3,200 km-), but diel vertically, too. By day swimming close to the sea floor at depths of 300 to 1,410 ft -90 to 430 m-, they move at night upwards or toward the coast.

Males reach maturity at 7.2 ft -2.2 m- and females at 7.5 ft -2.3 m-. This species possibly reaches 9.8 ft -3 m- in length. Despite their size, Bignose sharks are no danger to humans. They are taken worldwide as bycatch of gillnet, bottom trawl, and deep-set pelagic longline fisheries and used for their meat and fins or to produce liver oil, shagreen (shark skin leather), and fishmeal. Due to high fishing pressure, for instance in the northwestern Atlantic (where they are considered regionally as Near Threatened), in international waters and around the Maldives, its status is of concern and data collection and precautionary adaptive collaborative management should be a priority. Bignose sharks are considered regionally as Least Concern in Australian waters, and are protected in US waters.

Sources: here and here

Shark of the week: Smoothtooth blacktip shark — 11. September 2017

Shark of the week: Smoothtooth blacktip shark

What do the Smoothtooth blacktip shark (Carcharhinus leiodon) and the Australian blacktip shark have in common? Well, obviously they are both sharks with black tips on their fins. These two species of requiem sharks look similar in other aspects as well, and have both a small range: the first is to be found only off the Arabian Peninsula and the second off Northern Australia. And they are closely related, as shown by genetic tests. How is that possible?
Other close relatives linking the ranges of both species could be the key: the graceful shark inhabiting the whole Indo-Pacific, and the worldwide in tropical waters living blacktip shark.

C. leiodon
By Moore et. al. 2012 – Moore et. al. 2012 New biological data on the rare, threatened shark Carcharhinus leiodon (Carcharhinidae) from the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, CC BY-SA 2.5, Link

The Smoothtooth blacktip shark is extremely rare. At first there was only one specimen that had been found in 1902 off Yemen, but in 2008 a few more have been discovered on fish markets in Kuwait. Since then they are known to be at least 3.9 ft – 1.2 m – long. Their eponymous teeth have narrow, smooth cusps, similar only to those from finetooth sharks and juvenile spinner sharks.
Before 2008 the Smoothtooth blacktip shark had been considered as vulnerable by the IUCN. That could change due to the additional finds. Or not, since its small habitat suffers heavily from high fishing pressure and habitat degradation.

Sources: here and here

Shark of the week: Speartooth shark — 4. September 2017

Shark of the week: Speartooth shark

The Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), also known as Bizant river shark or Queensland river shark, is a member of the family requiem sharks. Just like the Ganges shark, this river sharks lives not only in rivers but in the sea, too. It seems that rivers in northern Australia and New Guinea are nursery grounds since newborn and juvenile sharks have been found there. They stay there several years (only shift according to tides or salinity) but up until 2015 no mature specimen had been found. Now it is known that this species mates in rivers, too, but lives also in coastal marine waters.

Speartooth shark melbourne.jpg
Speartooth shark by Bill Harrison from Wellington, New Zealand – Shark attack, CC BY 2.0, Link

Speartooth sharks are named after the shape of their teeth in the lover jaw: they seems topped with a spearhead. Females are viviparous (yolk sac develops into a placental connection) and give birth to up to 6 living young every two years. The pups are 20 to 23 in -50 to 59 cm- long and grow around 7.5 in -19 cm- per year. Mature sharks are up to 8.5 ft -2.6 m- long.

Despite their size, Speartooth sharks pose no threat to humans. They are extremely rare, but are caught incidentally by commercial, artisanal and recreational fishers as bycatch and suffer additionally from habitat degradation. Consequently, they are considered Endangered by the IUCN. Even as Critically Endangered on the 1999 Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (but since Commonwealth protection does not apply until a distance of three nautical miles from the coast, which is likely outside the range of this shark, it is of no use). Sadly, there are no regulations restricting the capture of this species in Papua New Guinea, and in Australia a management plan has yet to be enacted. In two Australian National Parks they are protected somewhat from habitat alteration, if not fishing.

Sources: here, here and here

Shark of the week: Grey reef shark — 28. August 2017

Shark of the week: Grey reef shark

The Grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) is a common species of requiem sharks living in the Indo-Pacific and the Red Sea. It is a homebody (but not territorial toward other Grey reef sharks) and stays mostly in shallow waters near the drop-off of its coral reef. It has the typical “reef shark” shape, with a broad, round snout and large eyes. Its body is grey above and white below with dusky to black tips on its fins, but will eventually darken in color due to tanning in the shallow water. It is social and forms groups with other Grey reef sharks.

Photo of long-finned shark, swimming
Grey reef shark by CRED/PIFSC, NOAA – http://noaacred.blogspot.com/2009/03/one-fish-two-fish-fish-team-at-wake.html, Public Domain, Link

Female Grey reef sharks are viviparous (embryos feed first from yolk and later via a placental connection) and give birth to one to six living young every other year. Those are 18 to 24 in -45 to 60 cm- long and reach maturity after around 7 years of age (11 years at the Great Barrier reef) when they are 4.3 to 4.9 ft -1.3 to 1.5 m- long (males) or 3.9 to 4.6 ft -1.2 to 1.4 m- long (females). They live up to 25 years.

Usually reaching 6.2 ft -1.9m- in length (although 8.5 ft -2.6m- long specimen have been found), the Grey reef shark is not the biggest shark at the reef. But it is famous for its thread display, which is meant to discourage even bigger enemies or competition from coming near to prevent unnecessary fights and thus possible injuries.

Drawings showing threatening and nonthreatening postures from front and side underlain with a line that is jagged and red on the left and gently curving and blue on the right
By Chris Huh (English Wikipedia user) – English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

It works for instance with hammerheads and moray eels and should work with divers, too. But since such a form of interspecies communication is difficult for us humans (we know what a growling and snarling dog means, but we don’t speak Shark), and the Grey reef shark is willing to walk the talk, if needed, there are several reports of shark attacks by Grey reef sharks (thankfully all non-fatal since they are capable of inflicting significant damage, for instance to submersibles). The IUCN considers the Grey reef shark as Near threatened due to low reproduktion rate, site fidelity and habitat degradation, but also high fishing pressure (for meat and fins). At the Great Barrier reef their population has declined by 97 percent in fishing and equally in non-fishing zones, compared to no-entry zones, indicating that poaching is a big problem.

Sources: here, here and here